Enzymes: principles and biotechnological applications.

Possibly the largest industry today that uses enzymes, is the food industry with many different functions across the board. Pectin Esterase is an enzyme designed to modify pectin molecules in a precise manner, in an attempt to maintain the shape and texture of food, particularly in fruit.

Enzymes have been used in household products to improve the quality of our life. For example, adding to the detergent to enhance the cleaning efficiency. Besides, enzymes are popular for daily personal use, including cosmetic, shampoo, and body care. The protein nature of enzymes determines the gentleness on skins and the environment.

Enzyme Technology: Application and Commercial Production.

Properties of enzymes and use in industries Enzymes speed up the biological reactions necessary for life. Each type is specifically shaped to carry out one reaction. Enzyme activity can be affected.Enzymes can be taken out of organisms, purified and then used in science and industry. One common use in the home is in biological washing powders. These contain amylase, lipases and proteases and break down any stains that contain carbohydrate, fat and protein. They therefore digest “biological” stains from the clothes.Living cells solve this problem by producing proteins called enzymes. Enzymes speed up cellular reactions. Liver cells produce the enzyme catalase to speed up the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide.


Enzymes are bio-catalysts and are used in several industrial processes since nineteenth century. Its use in textile industry is an example of industrial or white revolution. Enzymes, due to their non-toxic and eco-friendly characteristics, have gained wide applications in textile industry.Enzyme Lab “Enzymes are catalysts that speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process” (Leady). A catalyst helps speed up a chemical reaction without being changed during the reaction. Enzymes are specific meaning that they can work with only a specific set of chemical reactions. Most enzyme names end in -ase.

Examples of the industrial uses of enzymes Perhaps the best known use is that of protease in biological washing powders. This enzyme helps to break down protein stains such as blood at lower washing machine temperatures. This means they save energy and are gentler on clothes.

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The industrial uses of enzymes are listed below: Agriculture, Biomass, and Biofuels Enzymes have great potentials in agriculture, biomass processing, and biofuels production. In fact, some enzymes have already brought more effectiveness while doing less harm to the environment, compared to the more traditional chemical processes.

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Enzymes for industrial use are sold on the basis of overall activity. The proteins are stabilized by increasing the ionic strength of the environment. The commonly used stabilizers are ammonium sulphate and potassium hydrogen phosphate. Specific chemical modifications of amino acid side chains are made to stabilize the enzyme.

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The Uses of Enzymes In Industry, Medicine and Analytical and Diagnostic Processes Enzymes are very precise protein molecules with a high specificity which are used to catalyse chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to take place.

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Enzymes are used in the chemical industry and other industrial applications when extremely specific catalysts are required. However, enzymes in general are limited in the number of reactions they have evolved to catalyze, and by their lack of stability in organic solvents and at high temperatures.

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Manipulative Uses A variety of enzymes isolated from different sources are now-a-days applied in genetic engineering as one of the biological tools. Some of them are available in market (Table 3.1). Examples and brief discussion of these enzymes are given in Example of some enzymes. Industrial Uses Enzymes are used in industries in different ways.

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Enzymes are globular proteins used as biological catalysts, they speed up the rate of chemical reactions. The essential role of the enzyme is to provide an active site, which has a complimentary shape to the molecules that bind there. Substrates are converted to products through the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex. To be effective in a production process the enzyme molecules must be.

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Enzymes work similarly to those catalysts used in industry by lowering activation energy and therefore dramatically speeding up the rate of a reaction, however, these biological catalysts are highly selective to their substrate. Almost every chemical reaction that occurs in a cell requires enzymes in order to occur at rates required for the sustenance of life. Enzymes have an active site which.

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An immobilized enzyme is an enzyme attached to an inert, insoluble material—such as calcium alginate (produced by reacting a mixture of sodium alginate solution and enzyme solution with calcium chloride).This can provide increased resistance to changes in conditions such as pH or temperature.It also lets enzymes be held in place throughout the reaction, following which they are easily.

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Often used as the model of a homotropic effector is hemoglobin, although it is not a branch-point enzyme and thus does not fit the definition on all counts. There are two ways that enzymatic activity can be altered by effectors: the V max can be increased or decreased, or the K m can be raised or lowered. Enzymes whose K m is altered by effectors are said to be K-type enzymes and the effector.

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